Glossary

  1. add-on software– A software component that adds a specific feature to an existing application, such as a browser extension for Google Chrome or Adobe Flash Player.
  2. bandwidth– The bit-rate of available or consumed information capacity, or the average rate of successful data transfer through a communication path.
  3. block chain technology- A public ledger that holds and proves all network transactions securely. As blocks are added, a recording is added to the chain in both a chronological and linear order. The blockchain history cannot be manipulated, and information can only be added.
  4. CiviCRM– A web-based, open source suite of computer software for constituency relationship management that manages information about donors, members, event registrants, volunteers, and more.
  5. “cloud” applications– Application software such as Google Docs that exists in the cloud, meaning users can operate the application from many– rather than one– internet-enabled devices. Clouds can be public, private, or hybrid.
  6. constituent relations management (CRM) software– Software such as CiviCRM that specifically helps a political party or campaign manage and track interactions with its members. Although the software can be expensive, it allows the party or campaign to log its interactions with members and volunteers, which is valuable data.
  7. direct democracy– A democratic system in which the citizens debate and vote directly on proposed legislation, rather than voting for representatives who make legislative decisions for them.
  8. e-voting (electronic voting)– Voting using electronic systems to cast and count votes through punched cards, optical scan voting systems, voting kiosks, or the transmission of ballots/votes via telephone, private computer networks, or the internet.my belly looks pretty big int hat picture,
  9. GOTV (Get Out The Vote)– During a political campaign, the last few days up to and including election day are part of the GOTV effort. The effort aims to increase voter turnout on election and involves door to door canvassing and phone calls.
  10. information communication technologies (ICTs)– Any applications or devices that enable users to access, store, and transmit information. The term usually stresses the role of unified communications that integrate telecommunications, computer networks, and audio-visual systems, and more.
  11. interactive voice response (IVR)– Technology that allows people to interact with pre-recorded or dynamically generated audio responses over the phone through the keypad or speech recognition.
  12. intranets– Private networks that are accessible only to the members of an organization and contain means of internal communication and collaboration, as well as internal and external resources.
  13. levels of access– Refers to the different levels of access a user can have to a network. For example, at a low level of access, a party website user would only be able to see the party’s platform. But at a high level of access, the user would be able to edit the platform and decide where to put it on the site.
  14. liquid democracy– A form of democracy in which delegates, rather than representatives, have voting power. At any time, constituents can recall their delegates, and often a popular referendum can override delegate decisions. Constituents can, but do not have to, vote on delegated matters, and review delegates’ decisions.
  15. list segmentation– Email list segmentations allow an organization like a party to send targeted emails to segments of its email list subscribers. For example, a party could send an email to members within a certain radius, or only to members who have participated in a recent event.
  16. listservs– An electronic mailing list that allows a user to send one email to the list’s address, rather than to the address of each of the list’s subscribers.
  17. “look-alike” targeting– An online advertising technique that uses data from CRM software or browsing behaviors to target audiences similar to the advertiser’s desired audience.
  18. mobile phone application- A program developed to run on smartphones, tablets, and mobile devices, and is available through an application distribution. Different kinds of organizations use apps to distribute information to and engage with app users.
  19. Mohalla Sabhas– ‘Town hall’ meetings that the Indian Aam Aadmi Party has created to allow citizens to decide their locality’s work and development budget.
  20. off-the-shelf– Available to be bought and sold commercially. For example a party might purchase off-the-shelf software for its database from a retailer, rather than commission a vendor to make custom software.
  21. open-source technologies– Technologies that are available to the general public at little or no cost for use and/or modification without violating copyright or licensing laws.
  22. phishing– the activity of defrauding an online account holder of financial information by posing as a legitimate company.
  23. proprietary technologies– Also known as closed-source, technologies explicitly owned by vendors and sold to organizations.
  24. scope creep– When a project designed to solve one set of problems gradually morphs into something much larger without a clear agreement for it to do so.
  25. search ads – A method of placing online advertisements on web pages that show results from search engine queries. Through the same search-engine advertising services, ads can also be placed on Web pages with other published.
  26. Sharepoint– A Microsoft Office web application that performs various internal functions (usually for organizations) such as intranet, extranet, document management, content management, personal cloud, and more.
  27. smartphones– Mobile phones with advanced operating systems that connect to the internet, run third-party apps, play media, and take pictures, in addition to make making phone calls and sending SMS messages.
  28. software patches– Pieces of software that update, fix, or improve a program or its supporting data.
  29. specifications documents (“Specs”)– These documents outline: a comprehensive description of project objectives; technological, temporal, budget, and other constraints; features; maintenance considerations; and relevant case studies.
  30. TAILS- A secure operating system that aims to preserve privacy and anonymity by forcing all outgoing connections to go through Tor (free anonymous communication software) and blocking direct, non-anonymous connections.
  31. technologists-Experts in the field of information technology who sell their services, which include installing and maintaining IT, as well as evaluating an organization’s technology needs.
  32. vendor– Anyone one or any organization that sells goods and/or services. For example, a party might hire an outside technology vendor to design software for its voter management database.
  33. virtual private networks (VPNs)– Networks that allow a computer or other network-enabled device to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if it were directly connected to the private network, while benefiting from the functionality, security, and management policies of the private network.
  34. voice over internet protocol (VOIP)– A means of delivering voice communications, fax, and SMS over the internet rather than through regular telephone network.
  35. web browser “cookies”– Pieces of data sent from a website and stored in a user’s web browser. Every time the user returns to that website, the browser sends the cookie back to the server to notify the website of the user’s previous activity.
  36. webinars– Conferences or presentations hosted over the internet, usually in real time, that allow presenters and participants to interact with each other. Viewed asynchronously, webinars act as one-way audio and video webcasts. Webinars are often used for workshops and remote trainings.
  37. WhatsApp– A subscription-based instant messaging app for smartphones across platforms that allows users to send SMS, image, video, and other messages to other app users over the internet.
  38. wikis– Web applications that allow for collaborative modification, extension, or deletion of their content and structure. Wikis are content management systems that have no defined owners and little implicit structure.